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Classroom organization is evident in a room even if no one is present. Furniture arrangements, location of materials, displays, and fixed elements are all part of organization.
Effective teachers decorate the room with student work, they arrange the furniture to promote interaction as appropriate, and they have comfortable areas for working Kohn, They also consider student needs in arranging the room by leaving space for wheelchairs to maneuver; having walkways so students can access materials, pencil sharpeners, and the trashcan with minimal disturbance to others; and organizing in such a way as to allow the teacher to freely move around the room to monitor student progress Mc Leod et al.
Teachers are observers of behavior and understand the rhythm of the classroom. Placing materials near the pencil sharpener may seem like a good idea, until one considers that at the start of a lesson this area may become congested with some students retrieving materials for their group and others waiting to use the pencil sharpener.
However, the pencil sharpener and the trashcan may be a good pairing if the pencil sharpener tends to break regularly, spilling its contents on the floor; this way shavings fall into the trash instead.
Effective teachers think about the little details that enhance the use of available space in the classroom as well as the big issues.
Attending to issues of classroom management and organization provides the foundation for having high expectations for student behavior. Effective teachers have higher expectations for how students are to conduct themselves in the classroom than their less effective colleagues Stronge et al.
They are better managers of student behavior Emmer et al. They establish relationships with their students in which high levels of cooperation and dominance i. Effective teachers teach expectations to students and reinforce the desired behaviors with their verbal and nonverbal cues.
Another characteristic of effective teachers is that they hold students individually accountable Kohn, and, if necessary, use intervention strategies to help students learn the desired behavior Mc Leod et al. An exploratory study of effective and ineffective third-grade teachers found that ineffective teachers had five times as many disruptive events in an hour when compared with their more effective counterparts Stronge et al.
Through fair and consistent discipline, teachers reinforce their expectations of students and create a classroom that is focused on instruction. The following graphic organizer Figure 3. Together these structural and interpersonal elements contribute to the overall classroom management and ultimately to the unique climate and culture of every classroom. Mandrel has the desire and determination to succeed; he wants to be a good teacher.
Others can see his potential, but it has yet to be fully realized, largely because he hasn't learned how to effectively manage his students.
This year, Mandrel was given a choice as to who would be his mentor. He selected a teacher with whom he has good rapport and who is willing to meet regularly with him.
The tools presented in this section of the chapter can be used to identify areas of strength and weakness to support growth in the effective implementation of classroom management and organization.
Last year, Mandrel had his classroom rules, along with the consequences for not following the rules, posted for students. However, he found it difficult to get students to follow his rules. Worse yet, he knows that he did not do a very good job enforcing them.
Before the new school year started, Mandrel met with his mentor to examine the classroom rules he had created. The mentor suggested organizing the rules into a table figure 3. There are four criteria that a rule needs to meet to stay on the list. The rule must be all of the following: A good rule of thumb is that the rule should be written as a positive statement so that students know what is the desired behavior.
Only two of the rules in figure 3.
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The rules Mandrel created were all clearly stated in terms of the behavior. However, two of them were not reasonable because students would not be expected to follow them at all times. Of course there is some flexibility, but keeping a list of rules to a minimum will help Mandrel enforce them. Only two of the rules were general enough in nature so that they could be applied across multiple behaviors. It is simply not possible to regulate all behavior with written rules, so having broader ones helps to cover more behavior.
Mandrel's mentor observed him during a recent lesson. She asked Mandrel to explain the routines he used with his students in terms of taking attendance, getting materials, and turning in work.
In terms of the other two items, Mandrel said he just did what seemed to fit at the time. His mentor suggested that he build on the success he had with the lunch routine described in the Resources section by developing routines for common events in the classroom.
The first step was for Mandrel to generate a list of what these recurring activities were. She asked him if he were absent, how the substitute teacher would know about it.
Mandrel showed her his standard substitute plan information sheet that had the procedure written out. His mentor said that he could cross the first two bullets off the list since he had a routine for each of them. She asked him if there were any other items on the list that the students consistently did well.
He indicated that drills, starting morning work, and walking in the hall were fine, so he crossed those off the list, too. Looking together at the list, they decided to prioritize what routines should be developed and taught early on and which ones could be added later.
They focused on materials management a combination of getting and returning materials and changing activities as these transitional times were when Mandrel felt like he was losing time.
Together they brainstormed detailed steps for each routine on an index card that Mandrel could easily reference Figure 3. They talked about how he could introduce the routine and practice it with students. They agreed to meet after he introduced the first routine—changing activities.
The second routine would be introduced a couple of days later. As students mastered a routine and became comfortable with it, a new one would be added. Walking into his classroom, his mentor noticed that Mandrel's desk was free of clutter, his classroom displays were attractive and up to date, and there were areas designated for materials and specific activities.
He typically had materials prepared and lessons staged so he could go from one activity to the next. Mandrel used bins and color-coded accordion folders.
His mentor noted the presence of the bins on his desk see the Resources section for other organizational tips. He had one bin for his morning activities and another one for the afternoon. One area in which Mandrel needed feedback was in making the best use of his classroom layout. He has a combination of fixed features gray items on Figure 3. He has two main concerns: 1 students seem to gather in the back of the room near the sink and water fountain when they finish their work; and 2 he has tables that seat six students each with an open cubbie space affixed under each place on the table, so some students always have to turn their chairs around when he does whole group instruction.
Mandrel wants to be able to see his students at all times even if he is working with a group at a table or at his desk. Mandrel and his mentor have been working on classroom management issues, which influence his expectations for student behavior.
His mentor observed Mandrel's class using a time-on-task chart that captured off-task behaviors as well as how Mandrel managed the situation. Mandrel's mentor recorded student engagement in the teaching-learning process at five-minute intervals see Figure 3. Additionally, she recorded comments regarding off-task behavior and teacher responses. Two types of student behavior were recorded as off-task: 1 instances when students disrupted others and 2 instances when students were visibly disengaged.
Those visibly disengaged students certainly could be thinking about class, but they are not participating in class in the same manner as their peers.
During each five-minute cycle, the mentor watched and listened carefully for one full minute to get a clear sense of what was happening in the classroom, and recorded her notes during the four minutes before the next sampling of information.
Iroquois mask, story sticks, maple syrup Notes: Disrupting others would include students who are not only off task but also attempting to distract others from the teacher-assigned tasks. If Mandrel was uninvolved with students, the activity he was doing e. Visibly disengaged would include students who are daydreaming, doodling, staring out the window or otherwise not focusing on the teacher's assigned tasks, but who are not distracting other students.
Management strategy would be any action taken by the teacher either in response to a lack of attention by students or in anticipation of possible disruptions. Nature of intervention would include positive responses such as praising students who are attending or participating, negative responses such as yelling at students, or neutral responses such as changing the activity or moving near the student or students. Under Comments, note the type of action taken or what was said.
Reread the teacher scenario at the beginning of this chapter and the bits of information shared on the form with examples about Mandrel, the fictitious teacher in the scenario. Using the space below, summarize what positive teacher behaviors and actions exist, and what performance areas need improvement for Mandrel.
Reflection Learning Log What do I better understand now after studying and reflecting on classroom management and organization? What resources e. On the first day of school, students were given a piece of paper the size of a business card that was affixed to a magnet of the same size available at most office supply stores.
They were told to write their first name and last initial in big letters on the card. Then students decorated the cards with a picture of their favorite activity to do outside of school.
Mandrel had students introduce themselves by talking about their card. Then he had them find at least one other person in the class with whom they shared an interest. Before students even put away their bags and coats, they move their magnet to the appropriate lunch choice column Figure 3. Then, after morning announcements, Mandrel takes attendance by seeing whose magnet has not been moved and counts the number of students who are downloading lunch.
Mandrel also shared that he lines up students for lunch by calling for the students who are downloading lunch or milk to be in the front of the line, so they can continue ahead in the cafeteria to the food service line while he leads the rest of the students to their assigned table.
He had not thought of this as a routine, just something he did that worked. His mentor commented that this worked well and he could build from this experience to enhance the operation of other parts of the instructional day.
Additional organizational tips that work across grade levels are included in Figure 3. If students commonly work in the same group, assign each group a container dish tubs, baskets, and trays work well that they can send one member to retrieve and return for each activity. It gives the students an incentive to treat the common supplies well. Have a can of sharpened pencils near the pencil sharpener.
If the lead breaks during class, a student can place the pencil in the can and retrieve a sharpened one. At a more appropriate time e. HINT: The teacher may not have to download the initial pencils, since pencils frequently can be found on the floor when they have rolled away under another desk.
Just tell your custodian where retrieved pencils can be placed for student use. Set up numbered work stations with necessary supplies and assign students to matching work groups. This works well when students must go to the equipment e. At the secondary level when there are multiple preps separated by brief breaks, it can be helpful to have a plastic file folder holder affixed to the wall so the teacher can pull the necessary folder.
If the room is equipped with a monitor for Power Point presentations, use the first slide to identify the title and the second slide the goals; this not only organizes the students, but also reminds the teacher as well.
Keep a list of all students who may require medical attention in your grade book. Know the protocol for what to do, for example, diabetics, bee stings, epileptic seizures, etc. Write a daily agenda for students to know what to expect in terms of the day's objective see Chapter 5 on writing informational objectives , activities, and homework.
Note any changes in the regular daily schedule in this location. Use a blend of student-made and commercial products to display on the walls. An art portfolio works well to keep posters flat and poster board can be tabbed with headings of different units, so the teacher can pull out new material as appropriate for display.
The overall suggestion would be to keep Rules 1 and 2 and add one new rule about classroom neatness. The Reflect on the Teacher questions are provided to encourage interactive and reflective reading and application of the Handbook for Qualities of Effective Teachers.
The Authors' Perspective is provided as one way to reflect on the information presented. What can Mandrel do to eliminate some of the traffic flow problems? Mandrel has several rules that he feels are important. There are two group worktables, a reading space, bookcases, and the cubbies all in the back half of the room. Part of Mandrel's challenge is the physical space arrangement; the other part of the challenge is classroom management.
If traffic is a problem, limit the number of students who may be at any of those locations after they finish their work. There seems to be more potential for congestion on the left-hand side of the room and in the back than in the front or to the right. Additionally, the group worktable near the cubbies is in the way when students line up to exit from either door. One way to avoid this problem is to move the work table to another location so that students can line up a few feet out from the cubbies.
Suggest an alternative room arrangement that would address his concerns about students focusing on each other instead of on him when he is trying to teach. Mandrel has three of the five tables oriented so no students have to turn around to look at him. So in rearranging the room, the other two could be flipped.
This will create less space from the front wall to the back wall so the other furniture will have to be moved around. There are various pros and cons to placing the teacher's desk in the front of the room. By placing the desk in the back of the room, Mandrel is still able to see his students, but he has now created a space where he can work individually with a student without having the student or himself in the class' spotlight.
As for the other suggestions, a lot depends on personal preference for how spaces work. Mandrel does not seem to have a clear preference between verbal or nonverbal responses. However, he tends to use verbal interventions when students are being disruptive or have the potential to disrupt the learning of others.
The nonverbal approaches are used to refocus students. While Mandrel uses positive, negative, and neutral interventions about equally, he tends to focus on the positive a bit more. In the cases where he used negative interventions, the students had already been warned about their behavior—it was noted on the chart that the students already had their names on the board.
Based on the students' responses, where can he improve? At 50 minutes, Mandrel praised the students for their work. They responded with cheering that was short, and they quickly refocused. The students made a smooth transition to the next activity. When the class was recognized for behaving appropriately, it seemed to encourage more of the desired behavior. Perhaps Mandrel could try praising desired behaviors instead of relying so heavily on tally marks. The following blackline masters can be photocopied and used in your school or district.
They can be moved about later on the diagram as needed, but they do encompass the largest area in most classrooms. Notes: Disrupting others would include students who are not only off task but also attempting to distract others from the teacher-assigned tasks. Written by Himself. Now several hundred pounds richer, he sails again for Africa but is captured by pirates and sold into slavery.
He escapes and ends up in Brazil, where he acquires a plantation and prospers. Ambitious for more wealth, Crusoe makes a deal with merchants and other plantation owners to sail to Guinea, download slaves, and return with them to Brazil. But he encounters a storm in the Caribbean, and his ship is nearly destroyed. Crusoe is the only survivor, washed up onto a desolate shore. He salvages what he can from the wreck and establishes a life on the island that consists of spiritual reflection and practical measures to survive.
He carefully documents in a journal everything he does and experiences. Various encounters with local peoples and Europeans ensue. After almost three decades on the island, Crusoe departs with Friday and a group of pirates for England. Alexander Selkirk, a Scottish sailor who at his own request was put ashore on an uninhabited island in after a quarrel with his captain and stayed there until Creative writing ocean description It is quite a common scenario to find yourself working so hard that you cannot even go to sleep because giving in will result in unwanted consequences.
If you are a student in higher education, I must have gotten your attention, since this is an all-too-common reality for this demographic. Especially when you are in the last year before getting that diploma, the big battle to fight is the dissertation. This is a long college essay about a certain subject, a requirement for you to complete your course. The subject is something related to that field you chose which you have to write about the proposal example with an academic focus. A dissertation proposal is a document that is presented to a panel of judges tasked by the school administration, in relation to a scholarly thesis that needs approval.
Every student needs to furnish a copy of their dissertation proposal prior to the actual presentation itself so that the judges can decide whether it is substantial and relevant. It has always been a tradition and a requirement for every student to write one.
Traditionally, the conventional format of writing it is through pen and paper. However, since the emergence of the digital technology, most schools have started to accept and even expect proposals in PDF file. There is probably no ideal or should I say, standard look for a creative dissertation proposal.
Some schools suggest that their students should be creative and have the freedom to choose their own style on how to write a proposal. Following such reasoning, there is but one thing that they have to bear in mind, that it should look formal and scholarly.
However, some schools do provide formats which in a way helps students write their proposals. A creative dissertation proposal should contain an outline examples.
Usual outlines include an introduction, review of related literature, and methodology. This in itself should provide a substantial amount of information to its readers about the subject to be discussed. Finance dissertations are a common subject in courses such as business, accounting, and finance. Unlike dissertations from other fields, like science, engineering, and arts, finance dissertations are more quantifiable studies related to finance that could either help improve a business of a certain company or to the industry as a whole.
A finance dissertation proposal should be written with a clear understanding of the subject because you need to present it clearly and comprehensibly, something that even your colleagues can understand. You need to provide actual samples and market analysis data, just like in a finance proposal.
When writing a dissertation proposal, you need to be careful in providing the details. You have to always remember that you are not writing the dissertation itself but simple proposal templates. Only provide the essential information that, upon your careful judgment and discernment, is important to get your proposal approved.
Format of a well written application letter In this learning area, you will learn how to develop an argumentative essay and stronger critical thinking skills. This learning area will help you develop your arguments, understand your audience, evaluate source material, approach arguments rhetorically, and avoid logical fallacies.
Of course, you may be wondering what critical thinking really is. Essentially, critical thinking is about gathering and analyzing information in order to come to new conclusions on your own—or a new way of thinking. Business plan for hire A really important thing to remember is that you are entering a competition.
There are two kinds of funding: One is in a crisis situation, when many donors will fund you, that is you — the organisation, all your activities, all of your staff, everything that you will do. But in a period of stability a donor wants to fund something new that your organization is planning to do.
The site is composed of five sections: education, research, history, remembrance, and conscience. Holocaust Memorial Museum, located in Washington, DC, and its important collections, in addition to presenting interactive exhibitions and providing resources for study of the Holocaust and related subjects.
Each topic includes a —word introduction to the issue and links to roughly ten related primary documents and court opinions. These topics are designed for classroom use and include issue questions for discussion.
Another link explores the Supreme Court and includes items such as biographies of past and present justices, a virtual tour of the Supreme Court building, and a term calendar. Three interactive learning sites on the Bill of Rights, the Constitution, and the Founding Fathers are also offered.
This exceptional site can serve as a valuable resource for studying many aspects of legal and constitutional history. A companion site to the NPR radio documentary on segregated life in the South broadcast in February Presents 30 audio excerpts, ranging from one minute to ten minutes in length, and approximately photographs, arranged in six thematically-organized sections. Covers legal, social, and cultural aspects of segregation, black community life, and black resistance to the Jim Crow way of life.
Many of the photographs come from personal collections of the people interviewed. The site provides audio files and transcripts of the original radio documentary, more than 90 additional stories, a sampling of state segregation laws arranged by topic, links to 9 related sites, and a title bibliography.
The short word introductions to each section succinctly provide a contextual framework to the documentary material.
Valuable for those studying the American South, race relations, and African American history. This well-designed exhibit is composed of three galleries focused on the cultural impact of L. Each gallery contains multiple panels with one or more images and explanatory text. This exhibit is of interest to anyone studying popular culture or the history of the arts in 20th-century America.
Most of the interviews are about 15 minutes in length and explore diverse subjects, including Chicago architecture, urban landscape, immigrants, street life, the stock market crash, organized labor, New Deal programs, race relations, and integration. Sound recordings are searchable by date, keyword, or author. Approximately 2, life histories from — compiled and transcribed as part of the Federal Writers' Project for the U.
Complementing this site is an educational section intended to help students and teachers use oral history in the classroom and a minute interview with Terkel. Documents represent the work of more than writers from 24 states. This well-designed site offers a rich history of many influential, as well as lesser-known, personalities living in the second half of the 20th century and is beneficial to anyone interested in the Great Depression, World War II, race relations, and labor issues.
The histories, in the form of drafts and revisions, vary from narrative to dialog, report, or case history. Life histories are presented in facsimiles of original interview documents and as searchable text. Interviewers often substituted pseudonyms for names of individuals and places.
This multifaceted collection provides materials for teaching subjects such as slavery and 19th-century American folk cultures as well as social history of the Great Depression. These images document the ravages of the Great Depression on farmers, scenes of everyday life in small towns and cities, and, in later years, mobilization campaigns for World War II. The photographs are searchable by keyword and arranged into a subject index. This site features 35 hours of folk and popular music sound recordings from several European, Slavic, Middle Eastern, and English- and Spanish-speaking communities.
The Work Projects Administration California Folk Music Project collected these songs, in 12 languages and representing musicians, in Northern California between The collection also includes photographs of musicians, 45 scale drawings and sketches of instruments, and numerous written documents, including ethnographic field reports and notes, song transcriptions, published articles, and project correspondence.
Organized by folk music collector Sidney Robertson Cowell, sponsored by the University of California, Berkeley, and cosponsored by the Archive of the American Folk Song, this was one of the earliest ethnographic field projects to document folk and popular music of such diverse origin in one region. In addition to folk music of indigenous and immigrant groups, the collection includes popular songs from the Gold Rush and Barbary Coast eras, medicine show tunes, and ragtime numbers. This collection is an excellent resource for learning about ethnographic research practices as well as about cultures of various California ethnic groups.
A photo archive of more than 29, images, produced by architectural photographers Samuel Gottscho and William Schleisner. Gottscho and Schleisner were commissioned to document the work of architects, sculptors, and artists for individuals and institutional clients, such as House Beautiful and House and Garden magazines.
The collection specializes in views taken primarily in the northeastern United States—many in the New York City area—and in Florida.
Subjects include homes, stores, offices, factories, and historic buildings.
As the introductory text points out, the assembled group of photographs can "serve as a document of social change from a particular vantage point of the middle and upper classes of society. This collection presents 1, photographs by the American photographer, music and dance critic, and novelist Carl Van Vechten — The site consists primarily of studio portraits of celebrities, most of whom were involved in the arts, including actors, such as Marlon Brando and Paul Robeson; artists, such as Marc Chagall and Frida Kahlo; novelists, such as Theodore Dreiser and Willa Cather; singers, such as Ethel Waters and Billie Holiday; publishers, such as Alfred A.
Knopf and Bennett Cerf; cultural critics, such as H. More than 80 photographs capture Massachusetts and Maine landscapes and seascapes; others include eastern locations and New Mexico.
Presents approximately 14, photographs by Theodor Horydczak — , most of which document the Washington, D. Subjects include the architecture and interiors of government, commercial, and residential buildings; views of streets and neighborhoods; images of work and leisure; and events such as the Bonus March and the World Series. Many photographs of actors present them in character roles.
Also includes a limited number of shots taken in other U. Created by an international group of volunteer institutions, this site offers a gateway with thousands of links to general history resources and seeks to provide effective tools for practicing historians wishing to work online. This massive collection presents more than , images relevant to both U. A valuable collection for the documentation of the midth century art scene.
These images consist primarily of historical maps, posters, prints and photographs, illuminated manuscript pages, and images drawn from published books.
Most of these websites boast large collections of primary sources from the Library of Congress, the Smithsonian, the National Archives and Records Administration, and prominent universities. While most of these websites are either primary source archives for example, History of the American West, — or virtual exhibits, many offer lesson plans and ready-made student activities, such as EDSITEment, created by the National Endowment for the Humanities.
This website, sponsored by Yale Law School with the International Relations and Security Network ISN , is a collection of over 3, full-text documents relevant to the fields of law, history, economics, politics, diplomacy, and government. Within these broad collection headings, the images are further subdivided into more specific groupings, for example, Indonesian dance, dress and fashion, Civil War medical care, and New York City apartment buildings.
This megasite brings together resources for teaching U. The documents are divided into four century categories: preth, 18th, 19th, and 20th. Keyword and Advanced Search options are useful for those wishing to locate specific items. Each resource is accompanied by a brief annotation that facilitates quick browsing.
Includes treaties, presidential papers and addresses, and colonial charters, as well as state and federal constitutional and legal documents. All images can be downloaded for personal use and are accompanied by detailed biographic information, though users will have to turn elsewhere for further historical context.
All materials can be accessed through an alphabetical list, through the Major Collections page, through the four century pages, or by a keyword search.
Though most of these documents are directly related to American history, the site also includes over documents on ancient, medieval, and Renaissance history, European history, and modern diplomatic documents such as the Hamas Covenant. The site is ideal for researching American diplomacy, constitutional, political, and legal history. These eclectic special collection materials span the 17th to the 20th centuries. Visitors can search material from nine collections and visit 14 exhibitions.
A collection devoted to Theodore Dreiser presents correspondence, variant editions of the novel Sister Carrie, an early manuscript for Jennie Gerhardt, and scholarly essays. This collection of essays about the history of the U. Events include the caning of Charles Sumner in , the ban on smoking in the Senate chamber, and a Huey Long filibuster.
A collection on the history of chemistry emphasizes the pre period with monographs on chemistry and alchemy, and more than 3, prints and photographs of scientists, laboratories, and apparatus. The complete texts of 15 oral histories, of 40 to pages, of retired senators and Senate staff members are available and 15 others may be ordered.
The Robert and Molly Freedman archive of Jewish Music recordings includes 26, catalog entries in English, Yiddish, and Hebrew and six sample recordings. The oral histories cover to and deal with a wide range of issues, including the desegregation of the staff, the Mc Carthy hearings, preparations to impeach Nixon, rhetorical rules of debate, and the impact of computers on the work of the senate.
Exhibits celebrate the work of Eugene Ormandy and Leopold Stokowski. Staff members include pages, the Sergeant at Arms, aides, administrative assistants, and the first African-American Government Documents Clerk. A collection of 26 essays to words discuss Senate procedure, leadership, officers of the Senate, and general information, such as the development of the oath of office.
Diaries range from one to 30 years and are both indexed by date and available for reading as text.Sir Matthew of Rivenhill had been engaged to a lady that held ownership of Scarcliff. The village has seen many lords come and go over recent years and believe that the knight that has the stone is the rightful owner. View all 4 comments. Hugh let Benedict work with him on his books and took him with him on a business trip to let him learn about the spice trade that Hugh did for business.
Alice, smart and stubborn, strikes a bargain with Hugh only to have it come and bite her in the butt. However, Quick came very close to doing just that. Those visibly disengaged students certainly could be thinking about class, but they are not participating in class in the same manner as their peers.