This article looks at how to use Python to interface with MongoDB along with an overview of SQL vs. NoSQL, PyMongo, and MongoEngine. Patterns and processes for the popular document-oriented database. Learn how to leverage MongoDB with your Python applications, using the hands-on recipes in this book. This guide explains the basics of the document-oriented database and shows you how to set up a Python environment. Python is by far one of the easier programming languages to learn and master. and powerful code that works with MongoDB through the Python driver (AKA.
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MongoDB Atlas is a hosted database service that allows you to choose your database size and get a connection string! If you are interested in using the free tier follow the instructions in the Appendix section at the end of this article. For a detailed documentation on the driver check out the documentation here. The easiest way to install the driver is through the pip package management system.
Execute the following on a command line:. For variations of driver installation check out the complete documentation:. Once PyMongo is installed we can write our first application that will return information about the MongoDB server.
In your Python development environment or from a text editor enter the following code. This example also uses the pprint library which is not related to MongoDB but is used here only to make the output structured and visually appealing from a console.
This command returns information about our MongoDB instance and is used in this example as a way to execute a command against MongoDB. MongoDB stores data in documents. An example of a JSON document would be as follows:. The data itself can be different data types like geospatial, decimal, and ISODate to name a few. A collection in MongoDB is a container for documents. A database is the container for collections. This grouping is similar to relational databases and is pictured below:.
There are many advantages to storing data in documents.
While a deeper discussion is out of the scope of this article, some of the advantages like dynamic, flexible schema, and the ability to store arrays can be seen from our simple Python scripts. See the connection string documentation for detail information on how to create your MongoDB connection string. Once we create this object we can perform our CRUD operations. Create a new file called createsamples. Notice that we do not have to explicitly create a database beforehand in order to use it.
The result set will return the single ObjectID that was created. This is one of a few methods that insert data. We are now ready to explore querying and managing data in MongoDB using Python. To guide this exploration we will create another application that will manage our business reviews.
MongoDB and Python
Given we created sample pieces of data there is more than one business with rating 5. These cursors also support methods like count which returns the number of results in the query.
To find the total count of businesses that are rated with a 5 we can use the count method as follows:. Your results may vary since the data was randomly generated but in a test run the value of was returned.
MongoDB can easily perform these straightforward queries. However, consider the scenario where you want to sum the occurrence of each rating across the entire data set. In MongoDB you could create 5 separate find queries, execute them and present the results, or you could simply issue a single query using the MongoDB aggregation pipeline as follows:.
Python and MongoDB
A deep dive into the aggregation framework is out of scope of this article, however, if you are interested in learning more about it check out the following URL: It makes rapid application development a reality. With upsert you can tell MongoDB to create a new document if the document you are trying to update does not exist.
If you are deleting a large number of documents it may be more efficient to drop the collection instead of deleting all the documents.
There are lots of options when it comes to learning about MongoDB and Python. MongoDB University is a great place to start and learn about administration, development and other topics such as analytics with MongoDB.
This course covers the topics of this article in much more depth including a discussion on the MongoDB aggregation framework. For more information go to the following URL:. Follow the steps below to start using your free. When you do this the regions panel will be disabled.
The free tier has some restrictions with the ability to select a region being one of them and your database size will be limited to MB of storage. Note that the free tier does not allow you to chose anything more than the 3 node cluster, but if you move into other sizes these options will become available.
At this point we are almost ready; the last thing to address is the admin username and password. Setting up your IP Whitelist. This will pop up another dialog shown in Figure 3 below.
We want to make sure the MongoDB database is accessible from our development box before we start typing in code. A quick way to test is to make a connection using the Mongo Shell command line tool. Be sure to have your MongoDB connection information available. The Connect button will launch a dialog that provides connection information.
At the bottom of this dialog you will see a prepared command line ready for you to simply copy and paste in a command prompt. Note that if you copy the connection text as-is you will have to replace with the password for the admin user, and with the name of the database to which you wish to connect. The command text that comes from this dialog is lengthy. Finally we provide the username and password, and we are connected!
If you're interested in learning everything you need to know to get started building a MongoDB-based app you can sign up for one of our free online MongoDB University courses. Sign In Try Free. Initiatives Legacy Modernization Refresh your legacy app portfolio Data as a Service Make enterprise data an asset Business Agility Accelerate innovation and beat the competition. Personalization Relevant content for all your users Content Management Store and present all types of content Catalog Product catalogs and more.
Mainframe Offload Move workloads off the mainframe. Datasheets Events University Documentation. Partners Find a Partner Become a Partner. Products Solutions Customers Resources. Each document has an object id, Employee name and employee id to define the values of the document in our EmployeeDB database. The cursor is then used to iterate through the different records in the database. Here we are defining a variable name called cursor which will be used to store the pointer to the records fetched from the database.
We also have the facility of specifying the collection 'Employee' from which to fetch the records. The find function is used to specify that we want to retrieve all of the documents from the MongoDB collection. We are now iterating through our cursor and for each document in the cursor we are going to execute a function.
Our function is simply going to print the contents of each document to the console. Note: - It is also possible to fetch a particular record from a database. This can be done by specifying the search condition in the find function. Output: From the output, You will be able to clearly see that all the documents from the collection are retrieved.
This is possible by using the find method of the mongoDB connection db and iterating through all of the documents using the cursor. Inserting documents in a collection — Documents can be inserted into a collection using the insertOne method provided by the MongoDB library.
The below code snippet shows how we can insert a document into a mongoDB collection.
We are specifying the document details of what needs to be inserted into the Employee collection. If you now check the contents of your MongoDB database, you will find the record with Employeeid of 4 and EmployeeName of "NewEmployee" inserted into the Employee collection.
Note: The console will not show any output because the record is being inserted in the database and no output can be shown here. To check that the data has been properly inserted in the database, you need to execute the following commands in MongoDB Use EmployeeDB db. The second statement searches for the record which has the employee id of 4. Updating documents in a collection - Documents can be updated in a collection using the updateOne method provided by the MongoDB library.
The below code snippet shows how to update a document in a mongoDB collection. We are specifying the search criteria of which document needs to be updated.
In our case, we want to find the document which has the EmployeeName of "NewEmployee. If you now check the contents of your MongoDB database, you will find the record with Employeeid of 4 and EmployeeName of "Mohan" updated in the Employee collection. To check that the data has been properly updated in the database, you need to execute the following commands in MongoDB Use EmployeeDB db.
Deleting documents in a collection - Documents can be deleted in a collection using the "deleteOne" method provided by the MongoDB library.
The below code snippet shows how to delete a document in a mongoDB collection. We are specifying the search criteria of which document needs to be deleted.
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In our case, we want to find the document which has the EmployeeName of "Mohan" and delete this document. If you now check the contents of your MongoDB database, you will find the record with Employeeid of 4 and EmployeeName of "Mohan" deleted from the Employee collection. The second statement searches and display all of the records in the employee collection.
Here you can see if the record has been deleted or not. How to build a node express app with MongoDB to store and serve content Building an application with a combination of both using express and MongoDB is quite common nowadays. Hence, it's always good to understand how Node. Let's look at a simple example of how we can use "express" and "MongoDB" together.
We will now incorporate Express to display the data on our web page when it is requested by the user. When our application runs on Node.
When the page is launched, all the employee id in the Employee collection will be displayed. So let's see the code snippet in sections which will allow us to achieve this. Step 1 Define all the libraries which need to be used in our application, which in our case is both the MongoDB and express library. Code Explanation: We are defining our 'express' library, which will be used in our application. We are defining our 'express' library, which will be used in our application for connecting to our MongoDB database.
Here we are defining the URL of our database to connect to. Finally, we are defining a string which will be used to store our collection of employee id which need to be displayed in the browser later on. Step 2 In this step, we are now going to get all of the records in our 'Employee' collection and work with them accordingly.Be sure to have your MongoDB connection information available.
This can be done by specifying the search condition in the find function. Also, we can limit the find returned results. The below code snippet shows how to delete a document in a mongoDB collection.
A quick way to test is to make a connection using the Mongo Shell command line tool.
The result set will return the single ObjectID that was created.
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